We, the participants of the Maluku Reconciliation and Reconstruction Meeting, representing traditional, religious, youth and local government leaders from both Christian and Muslim communities reaffirm our deep commitment to the reconciliation process and pledge to undertake all necessary measures at our disposal to strengthen peace, stability, friendship, mutual trust and respect between our two communities in Maluku.

We recognise that reconciliation and reconstruction go hand in hand and cannot survive without each other.

We have come together as leaders/representatives of different segments of our community not only to affirm our mutual commitment to reconciliation but also to ask the international community to assist us in rebuilding shattered lives and creating a better future for Moluccans.

The enclosed recommendations reflect what we feel are priorities for reconstruction and reconciliation in order to create a lasting peace in Maluku and we trust that donor governments and donor bodies will consider these recommendations when formulating their funding and development strategies.

We are grateful to International Islamic Christian Organisation for Reconciliation and Reconstruction (IICORR Ltd.) and the British Foreign Office for giving us an opportunity to make this possible.

  1. Thamrin Ely
  2. M. Nasir Rahawarin
  3. Monsignor Petrus Mandagi
  4. Reverend Izac Hendriks
  5. Raja Mamala, A. Malawat
  6. Reverend Jacklevyn Manuputty
  7. Drs. Jusuf Idrus Tatuhey MS
  8. Reverend Johny Ruhulessin
  9. Raja Kailolo, M. Tuanaya
  10. Raja Tulehu, J. S. Ohorella
  11. Raja Passo, Th. Maitimu
  12. Raja Souhoku, C. Tamaela
  13. Mayor Drs. Marcus Jacob Papilaja MS
  14. Bupati Hasan Doa


  1. For the sake of long-term success of the reconciliation process it is vital that the following leaders are involved in a key role in the reconciliation and reconstruction process of Maluku:
    • Traditional village leaders (Rajas).
    • Traditional village councils (Saniris).
    • Youth and religious leaders and intellectuals.
  2. To consolidate the reconciliation and reconstruction process, we recommend that the Adat system is revitalised. This process should be undertaken by traditional leaders in co-operation with religious leaders and experts.

    • To establish an Adat working group responsible for initiating and investigating how to achieve this process.
    • The working group should include representatives from all three groups.
    • To seek funding for this crucial process.
  4. One of the key aspects of the revitalising the Adat system is to transform the role of Adat from a tradition/ritual-orientated role to a modernised social/political one.
  5. The role of the Adat leaders should be transformed to combine the role of traditional leader with local head of administration.

    Adat customary law needs to be incorporated/included in local legislation and implemented in Maluku.


    • Adat working group, together with members of local government, to draft a proposal to change the local administrative structure to reflect the changing role of the Adat leaders.
    • Adat working group to ask the local government to organise a seminar about empowerment of Adat for the local parliament.
    • Adat working group, together with members of local government, to draft legislation to incorporate customary law into local legislation.
    • To seek EU and UN assistance for the judicial and local administration reform process.
  6. We recommend the establishment of a forum of traditional leaders (Latupati Council) at the Sub district level to act as the representative body to convey the wishes and aspirations of the people from the local village/sub-district level.
  7. The Latupati Council should also become an Advisory forum to the Local and Central government conveying the wishes of the population and ensuring accountability.

    • To explore ways of implementing this with the local government.
  9. We recommend that the teaching of traditional and cultural values of Maluku (e.g. history, culture, language and art) will be incorporated in the school curriculum from Primary to Tertiary level education.

    • To explore ways of implementing this with the local government.
    • To implement a pilot project to produce relevant materials using existing expertise such as the UNDP Reconciliation schools.
  11. A cultural centre should be established to promote public awareness of Moluccan culture and tradition in order to strengthen intercommunity relationships.

    • To explore ways of revitalising the existing cultural centre (currently non-operational).
    • To seek assistance to establish the centre and to publish and print relevant materials particularly foreign materials currently only available in non-Indonesian languages.
  13. Non-Moluccans who reside in Maluku will have an option be included in the Adat system as long as they respect local traditions.

Background: Traditional Leadership in Maluku

The traditional leaders (Rajas) command the respect of the population under their leadership. Historically the position was a hereditary one. The Rajas’ advice is still sought on many matters and the position is usually held by a member of one of the prominent families in Maluku.

Family and village alliances are of great importance in Maluku. They form the basis of the friendship alliances between Christian and Muslim villages. This extends to political leadership.

Both Muslim and Christian traditional leaders are part of a complex leadership structure with a governing council at the top. The Christian and Muslim leaders would regularly meet to discuss and co-operate on various issues. Thus, there is an established structure of co-operation between the two communities, which has been in place for centuries.

Although the position of the Raja is a hereditary one, the system includes democratically elected representatives and is more accountable than the existing local administrative system. The traditional leadership structure is governed by Customary Law (Adat Law). Within this structure the Raja is directly elected by the whole population of the village. He/she has to consult with and is accountable to a village council, which includes an elected representative from each family in the village. Both the Raja and the village council hold an annual meeting with the entire village population where their performance is reviewed and issues are raised.




a) Deconcentration of Social Services to provide facilities in areas outside Ambon City (Health, Education)


  • Improve quality of medical services and build hospitals at sub district level.
  • Improve school facilities and quality of schooling outside Ambon City (starting with elementary schools) e.g. lab equipment, books, etc.
  • Improve teacher training and increase the number of teachers.

b) Education- building higher education infrastructure outside Pattimura including specific outreach programmes and specialist training programmes (Fx. Forestry training in Buru).


  • Identify key areas of specialisation/expertise such as forestry, fishery, ecotourism and computer training and investigate areas for locating training institutes.
  • Seek professional partners in the EU to establish joint programmes.
  • Develop educational programmes and syllabus.
  • Investigate possibility of submitting a joint application with European partners to EU Asia Link programme.

c) Twinning programmes with higher education institutes and schools for professional exchange and training programmes.


  • Research Internet to search for appropriate university partners.
  • Contact chosen universities.
  • Advertise opening of research opportunities.
  • Investigate possibility of submitting a joint application to EU Asia Link programme.

d) Internally Displaced Persons (IDP's).

  • Resettlement and return of IDP's.
  • Land Rights.
  • Concern about IDP dependency on assistance. Many IDP’s are earning more in Ambon now than they were in their home villages.


  • Co-operation and coordination of with local government and LSM (NGO's) to ensure complementary and coherent programmes.
  • Encourage IDP return to villages through social education and job creation.
  • Encourage NGOs and INGOs to focus on empowerment and job creation rather than Direct assistance.

e) Trauma Centre

To build already existing trauma centre into a centre of excellence.


  • Search for experts/expert organizations to undertake training of personnel.
  • Create a partnership with expert organizations and NGO’s.

f) Orphans

To investigate and implement necessary measures to provide for children orphaned during the Maluku conflict.


  • To investigate implementing a foster care and possible adoption programme.
  • To contact childcare organisations which specialise in this field.
  • To investigate possible joint cooperation programmes with fx. UK Department of Health and health departments from other EU countries.
  • Contact childcare organisations already present in the area to implement projects e.g. Unicef and Save the Children.

g) Transform the culture of violence to focus on positive issues such as sports


  • Research needs and identify programmes already implemented to address some of the needs.
  • Investigate links with International sports bodies and football clubs to partner with projects building for example football fields in strategic areas and providing sports equipment for youth teams and schools.



a) Narrowing social/economic gap within Maluku NGO to do need assessment and to follow up the recommendations.

b) Building regional/village infrastructure.


  • Investigate needs and draft recommendations for building local infrastructure outside Ambon city.
  • Research existing budget lines, which might be appropriate and identify partners for joint applications.

c) Developing home/small industries.


  • Investigate business opportunities.
  • Investigate start-up loans.
  • Identify experts/organizations to organize training for marketing and management of home/small industries.
  • Use existing expertise and NGO programmes where possible.



a) Development of integrated, small maritime industry in Maluku.


  • Open small ports and support facilities in Leihitu and elsewhere.
  • Build cold storage facilities.
  • Provide training for fishermen to develop new eco-friendly business ideas/home industries.
  • Seek foreign investment.
  • Investigate developing training and trade links with EU countries possibly submitting a joint proposal under Asia Urban development budget line.

b) Building proper water supply infrastructure.


  • Exploration of water sources in Ambon city.
  • Improve pipe networks.
  • Improve efficiency of the management system for water supply.

  • Investigate possible training project with EU regarding this under existing budget lines.

c) Law empowerment.


  • Organise training, socialization and awareness programmes to inform the population of their rights as citizens.
  • Investigate and utilize existing budget lines and resources maybe under UN and other programmes.

d) Law enforcement/security.


  • Increase police personnel and decrease military personnel in Maluku.
  • Invest in building police force infrastructure.
  • Increase judicial personnel/infrastructure.
  • Undertake or encourage trust-building measures between the community and the police force.
  • Investigate training programmes for policing in community conflict areas utilizing expertise from other similar situations, for example Northern Ireland or Kosovo.
  • Investigate training programmes involving judicial personnel from Northern Ireland/Kosovo.
  • Seek assistance under exiting budget lines from EU or UN.



Maluku Committee, established during the Maluku Reconciliation meeting, will act as the advisory and facilitating body to ensure the implementation of reconciliation and reconstruction recommendations agreed to at the meeting. Maluku Committee will comprise of the Executive Board and a number of working groups including Adat Working Group, Social and Economic Working Group, Education Working Group, Good Governance and Justice Working Group, Infrastructure Working Group. The Committee will also have an Advisory Board, which will include international experts and others.


  • Set up the committee formally in Maluku and decide the final composition of the committee.
  • Set up office facilities where necessary.
  • Investigate funding from the local government.
  • Establish relationship with local government, local NGO’s and donor governments.
  • Start implementing or facilitating the implementation of the recommendations.



The Interfaith Council was formed in December 2003. The Council consists of six people, two each from the following main religious bodies: the Moluccan Protestant Church (GPM), The Catholic Diocese of Amboina and the Council of Islamic Clerics (MUI).

During the Maluku conflict, religion was used for inciting hatred and violence. The Interfaith Council is an attempt to raise awareness about the commonalities between the religions and to teach the positive values inherent in each faith such peaceful co-existence.

The Council provides a forum for religious leaders to meet and discuss issues facing the society and respond to any arising tensions. The Council has also establishes an NGO, Interfaith Cooperation for Humanity, which will undertake a number of programmes to strengthen inter-community relationships and address areas of tensions.

a) The Council plans to create public awareness about dangers of violence and hatred and to teach the positive messages of peace.

b) The Council plans to create collective consciousness about solidarity and universal values of friendship and brotherhood.

c) The Council will utilise media to encourage dialogue and public awareness in common values.

d) The Council will act as the representative body of religious communities in interaction with provincial, local, central and foreign governments.

e) The Council will establish an effective observation/early warning system to detect any issues and incidents, which might create violence utilising the membership of each religious community.

f) The Council will initiate programmes to socialise the population about the value of reconciliation.

g) The Council will research and draft a long-term strategy to engage different segments of the community, particularly children and youth, in the reconciliation process.

h) The Council aims to focus on particularly the following groups:

  • Children
  • Women
  • Families
  • Youth


Projects focusing on children:

  • Creation of playgrounds which will bring together children from both communities.
  • Interfaith Education to encourage mutual understanding and respect for each others faiths and beliefs.

Projects focusing on women:

  • To implement inter-faith education programmes amongst women and encourage the transfer of knowledge within families.
  • To establish women’s clubs which will undertake reconciliation activities.
  • To utilise existing resources/organisations.

Projects focusing on youth:

  • To create youth community centres across Maluku which will offer job and skills training, recreational clubs and other events. The community centres will also offer inter-faith and reconciliation education.
  • To seek to engage the youth in constructive way in reconciliation process and to encourage youth to implement their own programmes.
  • To utilise existing projects/resources where possible and otherwise to seek assistance from EU and UN.

Projects focusing on families:

  • To establish inter-faith education programmes focusing specifically on families.